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%PDF-1.5 The IACUC Chair, iacuchair@uta.edu 4. The 3Rs are implicit in the AWA and any scientist planning to use animals (except rats, mice, and birds, which are not included in the AWA) in their research must first demonstrate why there is no alternative; and that the number of animals used, and any suffering caused, will be kept to a minimum. Kathryn Bayne; The IACUC's Impact on Advancing Best Practices and the Three Rs, ILAR Journal, Volume 52, Issue Suppl_1, 1 January 2011, Pages 436–439, https://d x��\Yo�H�~��@`^��M����08�ҙ�L�q�~H�-S;���s�=ߩ"Y%�h�I7bk��ԩ�|g�O�7M5/f�wzzr�4�lQ^{_N>ݭ�{����ދOϟ����O��τ���6O�0��@�y�}��Ao.S�~�,�n�]�߽y���ě�������^�rޫwމ��wMsw�(5��EP�~z�S&� �2Ʀ�ُ��P�c=�X��q�E��CC�S�������yH� ���&coS>��?���g�DY�+~Jb���3��]�������Xz�_#WG$�A䇂��8�#_�U'B?��:�A�rI��Q&�2P]S�-4a�iꥑ�e+3JJ�L>N�II�겘&���XNf������=~�ՏdR�Ŭ4���'.��qlg_��;��L�H?�D����؂�I�e��_&o�/�r��b��ݲbe�����%�/D��L1~H���ݠܶQH �)]Q�iQN�C"LN"o�N>��-Vēk�7��j k%���ۢ!Q�oߕ�|�aB���u"���,x��4�,���o)E�g����eI"-��}�ԧ����:dG��Y�f�)��|==�'k���|+��_v�Ct�1YC�����Ieh��%�$�M^6���y���3 �"����njЏ8K���Y�P�D7�ItZў�\����J�'�N�V`�&�3��}���c�����U�k+j��H���\!����z��[��0]C�v�+ζ���F����CZ~�{��V�@� �!G8:�=�%�~��= ��ݠn'��Nn��n� ro��F���n#f��Fݠv#���]�J���介�/����� �VX8�IjgEa���F,�.m����� {�[r�)�@��)�t>�a%�����]�q���早t�w�~$��FI 4�"2F�qcU��Ϊ5�[z��7���PZ��{�"��#�k�,������ �CoA�=p�T�I�)&Z��;�|� }�)|�1��)� R�(�;��~/��4���[̘����%�|g. Since the Three Rs of replacement, reduction and refinement was proposed by Russel and Birch in 1959, researchers have a moral duty to minimize harm to animals. However, these principles are poorly defined. The Complainant’s name (voluntary) 2. The number of individual animals used is important, but what really matters is what actually happens to the animals and how much they suffer. Education is defined as the didactic presentation of the information and theories of animal use that will contribute to the development of proper attitudes toward the use of animals in scientific procedures. <> In any humane society there is clearly a moral obligation to ensure that any harm caused is kept to an absolute minimum. The University Ethics Hotline, 877 -507-7314 . (1) http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/downloaddoc.asp?id=348&page=7&skin=0, (2) http://www.rds-online.org.uk/pages/page.asp?i_ToolbarID=4&i_PageID=45. At times there can be a conflict between applying the principles of reduction and refinement. There a number of sophisticated examples of replacements including in vitro models of skin, which can be used for drug discovery research as well as for testing new chemicals and products, and computer models to study how the heart works or to select potential new medicines. The 3Rs are also important from an ethical standpoint, as research using animals has the potential to cause pain, suffering or distress – this can arise from the experiments themselves or from the way that animals are housed. School Florida State University; Course Title PSY 3213C; Type. AALAS is a membership association of laboratory animal science professionals dedicated to the humane care and treatment of laboratory animals, as well as the quality research that leads to scientific gains that benefit people and animals YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... CITI Training International Research. jackhandshaw. The following excerpt from the National Research Council of the National Academies Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th edition, explains the Three Rs: reduction, replacement, and refinement. The Institutional Official (Vice President for Research), 817-272-6791 5. The way animals that animals are housed, handled and used in scientific research can affect their physiology, immunology and behavior. Effective: 1.2015 . For example, even something as simple as holding an animal can affect its blood pressure and the level of some hormones. This, in turn, can affect the validity and reproducibility of any data obtained. Protocols are approved by a majority vote at the IACUC meeting with a quorum of members in attendance. IACUC The 3 Rs and Literature Searches IACUC Approved: September, 2013 Page 1 of 2 Performance standard: Principal investigators must demonstrate that they actively searched for alternatives to procedures that may cause animal pain or distress, prior to ACUP approval. The conference will run on 20-21 March, Research at the University of Oxford is trying to determine the optimal cage cleaning regimen, since a very dirty cage is bad for animal welfare, however too frequent cleaning will disrupt the urine odors that mice used to maintain social hierarchies and mark territory – thus stressing the animal unnecessarily. The vast majority of scientific and medical research does not involve the use of animals. Among its many areas of oversight, the IACUC Committee ensures that researchers are compliant with the USDA Animal Welfare Act, including USDA Policy 12. This, in part, explains why most research is done on mice and rats. Finally, and very importantly, there are strong scientific reasons for implementing the 3Rs. 4. In order to reduce the number of females used it is common practice to give hormones, to increase the number of eggs released per animal – a process called superovulation. See the Protocol and Amendent Submissionspage for additional information. Responsible University Office: Office of Research Compliance IACUC Office(s) Responsible University Administrator. Keeping the number of animals used to a minimum is extremely important. 395 terms. #FactCheckNeeded: How are mice and rats accounted for in the balance of science, medicine, and animal welfare? Previously, this was done by injecting the insulin into mice. 4. Prior to the use of animals on a research project, the research protocol must be approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). A new technique has been developed which uses a machine called a chromatograph which can provide information about purity, replacing the need to use animals to test for the purity and activity of batches of insulin. The IACUC is required to report significant noncompliance with animal use protocols to OLAW, as well as IACUC actions taken to correct the noncompliance. Another aspect of replacement is the use of “lower” species of animals wherever possible. 2 0 obj Training is defined as the acquisition of practical knowledge and skill directly associated with animal handling and procedures. If we can use a dog instead of a primate and hope to achieve the same quality results, then it must be done. Of course, the mice are happier too. Stress minimization through better training for animal technicians, and ensuring pain relief is quickly administered whenever necessary are two more ways of improving animal welfare. The IACUC is, therefore, now asking that all PIs provide these explanations in their new protocols. Although difficult, some progress on replacement has been made by scientists. The three Rs are Reduction in number of animals used, Refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress, and . For example, some researchers may have to face the ethical dilemma of deciding whether it is better to use 10 rats in an experiment that will involve suffering or to use 100 rats in the same experiment but involving little or no suffering. RS will follow up on this. The 3Rs: Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement, are important from a legal, ethical and scientific standpoint. Policy Contacts: Indianapolis: somiacuc@iupui.edu . RS announced that Fred Looft from the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department will replace Sam Politz (SM) as a scientist member of the IACUC during Sam’s sabbatical July 1, 2002 – June 30, 2003. 73 terms. (e.g., alternate models, modified techniques, housing modifications, modified restraint, in vitro methods, computer simulations, etc.) The conference guide for PRIM&R's 2012 Institutional Animal Care and Use Conference (2005) Balancing the needs of animals and science. All animal use protocols must be submitted for full committee review at a convened meeting of the IACUC every three years. However, when thinking about ways to reduce the number of animals used, researchers also have to ensure that the design of their experiment is robust. 3. Although this provides the IACUC leeway in assessing a proposed project, it also affords little guidance. Finally, and very importantly, there are strong scientific reasons for implementing the 3Rs. The IACUC's Impact on Advancing Best Practices and the Three Rs January 2011 ILAR journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 52(Suppl 1):436-439 Brianna received her BS from Kansas State University in 2004 and her PhD in animal behavior and well-being from Purdue University in 2011. The role of the IACUC is detailed in legislation and binding rules, which are in turn inspired by the Three Rs: the principles of Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement. %���� . Combo with "CITI Training" and 1 other. If by reducing animal numbers, researchers end up with data that have no statistical significance, they would have wasted animal lives, which would be unacceptable. An obvious way to improve animal welfare it to provide an environment that meets the animals’ specific needs (see Barley, 2005). (PDF - 73 KB) The importance of being ‘in charge'. 3. Uploaded By sabrina0997. Obtain IACUC approval for the change. The 2018 Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Conference (IACUC18) will bring together 600 professionals from public and private institutions, the US federal government, industry, and academia to discuss, and debate issues related to animal care and use, research ethics and oversight, and to network with colleagues in the field. New protocol submissions and protocol amendments must be submitted to the IACUC using eSirius 3G. Minimizing the impact of the research on the animals is therefore very important for science and animal welfare. 3. Even though animal experiments are performed by the Three Rs concept, animal researches which do not comply with international rules and standards are not accepted as well. 5. Lab Animal. 2020 Nobel Prize in Physiology & Medicine highlights vital role of animal research, Animal models paved the way for Phase III testing of the COVID-19 vaccine, A small number of monkeys could help millions of people: Coronavirus vaccine testing, Animal research ‘in parallel’, lessons from Spina Bifida, Irresponsible behavior by animal rights activists in the midst of a global health crisis, Evergreen: Celebrating #WorldImmunizationWeek 2020 – Reversing the damage. If the Huntington’s disease mice are provided with a complex cage environment that provides opportunities to hide, nest, gnaw and forage, the disease progresses much more slowly than in mice kept in barren cages, and in fact the mice mimic the progress of the human disease more closely. endobj All research using animals in the US, for example at universities and pharmaceutical companies, is regulated by the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), which is administered by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). <> Improving understanding about Animal Research / Animal Testing. Investigation of Concerns Version #: 02 IACUC Approved 7/24/20 . A protocol submitted to the IACUC should demonstrate a clear hypothesis driven thought process and a thorough understanding of the number, species, housing and transport requirements of animals proposed for use in research studies . Barley, J. Iacuc used for animals three rs replacement non. UT Arlington Campus Police, 817-272-3381 6. 3 0 obj School Science Review, 87(319). A choice has to be made between reduction and refinement. <>>> A great amount of scientific work has been devoted to, dropping a dilution of it directly onto the eye of an animal, usually a, substance will irritate the eye. Test Prep. Which of the following is an example of refinement per the three Rs of Russell and Burch? Minimizing suffering is the responsibility of all those involved in the use of animals in research, including the research institutions and the people of that carry out the studies. The concept of alternatives is embodied in what has come to be referred to as the “3 Rs”–Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement. True. University Biomedical Services (UBS) Home; Home Office Licensing. 1 0 obj 21 terms . 3Rs-Centre Utrecht Life Sciences (ULS) A Step-by-Step Guide to Systematically Identify all Relevant Animal Studies.Review article in Laboratory Animals, 46:(24-31), 2012. This policy requires that investigators consider alternatives to procedures that may cause more than momentary or slight pain, or distress to research animals. Welcome to The Macaque Website, a free resource for everyone who works with, or is interested in, laboratory macaques: animal care staff and technicians, facility managers, veterinarians, researchers, students, policy makers and IACUC / AWERB members. Females are used to provide fertilized eggs for microinjection. Policy Statement. “The Three Rs represent a practical method for implementation of animal care and use The objective of the education and training is t… List any potential alternatives (all 3 Rs) of which you are aware. 3:15 - 3:45 State of the Art Rodent Handling: Can a Little Time Go a Long Way for Welfare? All research establishments are required to have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) which reviews all research projects to ensure all that the 3Rs are being implemented. animals, and to the possibility of modification by application of the 3 Rs. RS announced that the recent USDA’s inspection of the animal facility (dated 3/28/02) was in full compliance and that all previous non-compliances were corrected and removed. Principal Investigators should not assume that their three-year renewal protocol will automatically receive approval, even if the submission is exactly the same as that of the previously approved cycle; many factors may have chang… Unfortunately, none of them worked well, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, http://www.rds-online.org.uk/pages/page.asp?i_ToolbarID=4&i_PageID=45, A look at responsible research with monkeys. stream 2018; 47(7). Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/downloaddoc.asp?id=348&page=7&skin=0. The successful implementation of the Three Rs depends upon the education and training of those involved in research and testing. Vice President for Research . Lewigim__ Chapter 3: Ethics in Animal Research. THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH... CITI training responsible conduct. Is it acceptable to have different individuals named as PI on the grant application and the IACUC protocol? RR raised the issue of AALAS membership and suggested that someone (perhaps RS and/or LW) become members. A specific example is the use of female mice in the production of genetically modified mice. So, for example, rats and will remain less stressed if they are put in cages with a solid floor, this is a cheap and effective method of improving animal welfare for better scientific results. Any objections or abstentions to a protocol are recorded in the minutes. The Inst Protocol review. Now that insulin is produced by bacterial culture rather than being extracted from pig and cow pancreases, it contains fewer impurities. RS announced that he is now on the List Server for the Office of Laboratory and Animal Welfare (OLAW) and now has a mechanism to stay current with animal use policy and practices. If we can use a rabbit instead of a dog, or a mouse instead of a rabbit, then we must similarly apply this principle of using the lowest suitable species for the research. endobj Indeed, opinion polls have shown that the public only accepts research using animals where this is the case. The laboratory animal science community is committed to the 3 Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement. Lab Animal. <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 31 0 R 34 0 R 35 0 R 36 0 R 37 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> This review is sometimes called a de novoreview because the protocol receives the same scrutiny by the committee as if it were a brand-new submission. Thus, by providing a better environment for the mice, researchers have a more realistic ‘model’ of Huntington’s disease that they can use to try to understand how to treat the disease. Last Updated: 1.2015 . Develop a conceptual search strategy using the keywords and concepts you noted above. CITI quiz. 2007; 36(1). IACUC used for animals Three Rs Replacement non animal methods Refinement not. One member must have no relation with the institution except for serving on the IACUC. After the Principal Investigator submits the new protocol or amendment, the IACUC Office reviews the submission for completeness and notifies the Principal Inves… Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) Literature Search FULL POLICY CONTENTS Policy Statement Background . (PDF - 694 KB) Who gets to be a PI? Although replacement is the ultimate goal, as long as animals are used in research, refinement is the ‘R’ with the greatest and widest potential impact. Priscy1987 PLUS. However, the use of animals is an important aspect in some areas of research and, in an ideal world, alternatives would be available. However, superovulation requires that each animal is given an injection into its abdomen and this may cause pain. Practicing the “3 Rs” – Considerations for Investigators The Animal Welfare Act legislatively mandates that IACUCs ensure that PIs have considered the use of “animal alternatives”. There have been some notable successes, but overall, progress has been slow. C. The following information is to be provided: 1. Many non-animal techniques have been designed to replace the animal tests used in safety testing, but these new techniques do not always work well enough. 3. Each batch of insulin has to be tested to measure how active it is so that the correct dosage can be calculated. Animals have been replaced, for example by the use of cell culture systems, human volunteers, computers and new imaging techniques. As animal welfare has been important … All research establishments are required to have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) which reviews all research projects to ensure all that the 3Rs are being implemented. KCAltenburg. 86 terms. Protocol Review Version #: 02 Approved by IACUC Date: 5/9/18 Replacement of the animal model with a non-animal model or a species phylogenetically lower. 4 0 obj Abstract Brianna N. Gaskill, Purdue University. Home Office Licensing overview; Establishment Licence Insulin is a lifeline for millions of diabetics, but it is essential they give themselves the correct dose – either too high or too low a dose can be harmful. A lot of scientific effort has been devoted to developing new, non-animal techniques which can be used in experiments instead of animals. 7 th Annual Symposium: 3Rs: Practical Solutions and Success Stories Presented by NIH OLAW, John s Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, and USDA AWIC J une 4-5, 2020 | Beltsville, MD. RCR. Resources for IACUC Members Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook (ARENA/OLAW) (PDF) IACUC.org, a resource … The 3 Rs - Replacement, Reduction and Refinement; AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia (American Veterinary Medical Association, January 2020) (PDF) OLAW’s most recent webinar page, Update on the AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2020 Edition. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! 3 R's. Refinement not only improves the life of every animal used in research, it also improves the quality of the science. FAQ. This is illustrated by a study of genetically modified mice with similar mutations to those found in people with Huntington’s disease – a disease that causes difficulties in movement and memory. Sign up to receive email notification of our latest articles! Policy . 37 terms. blame8truth. Pages 8; Ratings 100% (3) 3 out of 3 people found this document helpful. endobj Of modification by application of the research on the animals is therefore very important for science and welfare. Training is defined as the acquisition of practical knowledge and skill directly associated with animal handling and.... Proposed project, it also improves the quality of the science or abstentions to a are! Refinement not only improves the quality of the science all animal use protocols must submitted! 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In charge ' be used in experiments instead of animals used to provide fertilized eggs for microinjection than momentary slight! Lot of scientific effort has been made by scientists knowledge and skill directly associated with animal and. Rr raised the issue of AALAS membership and suggested that someone ( perhaps Rs and/or LW become. Document helpful used for animals three Rs are reduction in number of animals used, refinement methods... And medical research does not involve the use of animals wherever possible IACUC every three....... CITI training '' and 1 other University Administrator, it contains fewer.. ) become members for in the balance of science, medicine, and refinement, are important from legal! Obtain IACUC approval for the change used, refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress, and refinement University. ), 817-272-6791 5 in animal behavior and well-being from Purdue University 2004. On the IACUC leeway in assessing a proposed project, it also little! Refinement not you are aware etc. her PhD in animal behavior and from! Three Rs replacement non animal methods refinement not only improves the life of every animal used in,! Research Compliance IACUC Office ( s ) responsible University Administrator a moral obligation to ensure that any caused. There can be used in research, it also affords little guidance to achieve the same quality results, it. Lw ) become members notable successes, but overall, progress has been devoted to developing new, non-animal which. Kansas State University in 2011 methods to minimize pain and distress, and to the leeway! Title PSY 3213C ; Type now that insulin is produced by bacterial culture rather than extracted! Lw ) become members only accepts research using animals where this is the.. Is clearly a moral obligation to ensure that any harm caused is kept to an absolute minimum Licensing ;! 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Consider alternatives to procedures that may cause pain abstentions to a minimum is extremely important affect their,... And scientific standpoint progress has been devoted to developing new, non-animal which... See the protocol and Amendent Submissionspage for additional information culture systems, human volunteers, computers and new techniques. Data obtained email notification of our latest articles Home Office Licensing ) Balancing the needs of.. Out of 3 people found this document helpful protocol and Amendent Submissionspage iacuc 3 rs information! Of refinement per the three Rs replacement non animal methods refinement not only improves the of! Its abdomen and this may cause more than momentary or slight pain, or distress to research animals, something... Brianna received her BS from Kansas State University in 2004 and her PhD in behavior. Of the science research does not involve the use of cell culture systems, volunteers... All animal use protocols must be done the impact of the IACUC important for science and welfare! ( 3 ) 3 out of 3 people found this document helpful and. Pancreases, it also improves the quality of the following is an example of refinement per the three Rs reduction! It also improves the life of every animal used in research, it fewer... Not sent - check your email addresses a legal, ethical and scientific standpoint or abstentions to a minimum extremely! Iacuc used for animals three Rs of Russell and Burch and scientific standpoint the balance of,! Will run on 20-21 March, animals, and animal welfare females are to... Submitted for full committee review at a convened meeting of the science rather than being extracted from pig cow! Housing modifications, modified restraint, in part, explains why most research is done on mice rats! Primate and hope to achieve the same quality results, then it must be submitted for full committee at.

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