ethical standards for animal research in psychology

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PSYCH 105 Psychology as a Science and Profession (3)(BA) This course meets the Bachelor of Arts degree requirements. Wrote the paper: HRF NB. It is now widely acknowledged by scientists and ethicists that animals can experience pain and distress [25]–[29]. Although pain and suffering are subjective experiences, studies from multiple disciplines provide objective evidence of animals' abilities to experience pain. They argue that all life is sacred and animals go through a lot of distress during experiments in which they involuntarily take part. In contrast, certain dogs and cats have received special attention and protections. Since a Western set of values guides the definition of "normal," psychological research can be considered __________. This two-day symposium aimed to advance the study of the ethical and scientific issues surrounding the use of animals in testing and research, with particular emphasis on the adequacy of current protections and the promise and challenges of developing alternatives to the use of animals in basic research, pharmaceutical research and development, and regulatory toxicology. Potential causes of harm include invasive procedures, disease, and deprivation of basic physiological needs. No, Is the Subject Area "Pain" applicable to this article? Human research protections emphasize specific principles aimed at protecting the interests of individuals and populations, sometimes to the detriment of the scientific question. While strides have been made in the protection of both human and animal research subjects, the nature of these protections is markedly different. Start studying Ethical research (100%) Psychology. Ethical objections to the use of animals have been publically voiced for more than a century, well before there was a firm scientific understanding of animal emotion and cognition [15]. The authors thank the conference speakers and participants for their participation. Affiliations AIDS and HIV Infection Update: New Research, Ethical Responsibilities, Evolving Legal Frameworks, and Published Resources [Innovations in Clinical Practice] Sexual Behavior Between Clinical Supervisors and Trainees: Implications for Professional Standards [Professional Psychology] No, Is the Subject Area "Breast cancer" applicable to this article? Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior". Yes This collection aims to spur further steps forward toward a more coherent ethical framework for scientific advancement. Is the Subject Area "Research ethics" applicable to this article? There are a number of unethical elements in the experimental design. In the UK the Home Office is responsible for legislation in the field of animal welfare. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, D.C., United States of America, Despite the attention brought to this issue by Russell and Burch, the number of animals used in research and testing has continued to increase. The American Psychological Association's (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (hereinafter referred to as the Ethics Code) consists of an Introduction, a Preamble, five General Principles (A-E) and specific Ethical Standards.The Introduction discusses the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application of the Ethics Code. Yes A code of ethics aids psychologists in the following ways except in __________. In 1959, William Russell and Rex Burch published the seminal book, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, which emphasized reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal use, principles which have since been referred to as the “3 Rs”. Russell and Burch's text emphasized reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal use, principles which have since been referred to as the “3 Rs”. The year 2007 marked a turning point in the toxicology field, with publication of a landmark report by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC), highlighting the need to embrace in vitro and computational methods in order to obtain data that more accurately predicts toxic effects in humans. These principles encouraged researchers to work to reduce the number of animals used in experiments to the minimum considered necessary, refine or limit the pain and distress to which animals are exposed, and replace the use of animals with non-animal alternatives when possible. Ethical guidelines for animals, such as Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals (APA, 1996), have been established; thus, nowadays ethical guidelines on animal research are implemented and strongly supported by the law. here. If researchers could better understand the factors that increase the risk for breast cancer, as well as methods for effective prevention, fewer women would require treatment for breast cancer. Another relevant consideration is how well animal data can mirror relevant epigenetic effects and human genetic variability. Apprehension around burgeoning medical research in the late 1800s and the first half of the 20th century sparked concerns over the use of humans and animals in research [14], [15]. It is important for researchers and reviewers to assess differences in the clinical presentation and manifestation of diseases among species, as well as anatomical, physiological, and genetic differences that could impact the transferability of findings. These findings suggest that crows and related species display evidence of causal reasoning, flexible learning strategies, imagination and prospection, similar to findings in great apes. Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between right and wrong and in applying that understanding to their decisions. Strengthen your addiction knowledge base on your budget. Whereas the U.S. However, some in the scientific community are beginning to question how well data from animals translates into germane knowledge and treatment of human conditions. In the last decade, concerns have mounted about how relevant animal experiments are to human health outcomes. Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, have been described in animals including chimpanzees and elephants [35], [36], [37]. Examples of existing and promising non-animal methods have been reviewed recently by Langley and colleagues, who highlighted advances in fields including orthodontics, neurology, immunology, infectious diseases, pulmonology, endocrine and metabolism, cardiology, and obstetrics [52]. While a sea change is underway in regulatory toxicology, there has been much less dialogue surrounding the replacement of animals in research, despite the fact that far more animals are used in basic and applied research than in regulatory toxicology. Psychologists are supposed to make the most ethical decision they can in any circumstance. Deception is not necessary for the successful completion of this study.The subjects were never debriefed in the study. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups; 4; Journal article reporting standards for qualitative primary, qualitative meta-analytic, and mixed methods research in psychology: The APA Publications … This differs significantly from animal research guidelines, where the importance of the scientific question being researched commonly takes precedence over the interests of individual animals. However, this is likely an underestimate, and it is impossible to accurately quantify the number of animals used in or for experimentation. Despite serious shortcomings for many of these assays, most of which are 50 to 60 years old, the field has been slow to adopt newer methods. The examples above illustrate how innovative applications of technology can generate data more meaningful to humans, and reduce or replace animal use, but advances in medicine may also require novel approaches to setting research priorities. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Speakers also explored the dimensions of harm associated with animal research, touching on the ethical implications regarding the use of animals in research. Ethical communication with clients dictates that psychologists will keep their conversations confidential unless required by law t/f? The field of psychology has made great strides toward equality by ignoring minority groups. No, Is the Subject Area "Publication ethics" applicable to this article? For example, fear operates in a less organized subcortical neural circuit than pain, and it has been described in a wide variety of species [31]. The Association for Applied Sport Psychology’s (AASP) Ethical Principles and Standards (hereinafter referred to as the Ethics Code) is presented here and consists of this Introduction, a Preamble, six general Principles, and 26 Standards. Yes Recent systematic reviews of treatments for various clinical conditions demonstrated that animal studies have been poorly predictive of human outcomes in the fields of neurology and vascular disease, among others [7], [48]. Today, these guidelines provide a platform for the protection of human research subjects, including the principles of respect, beneficence, and justice, as well as special protections for vulnerable populations. e24059. Animal Welfare Act excludes birds, rats and mice, the U.S. guidelines overseeing research conducted with federal funding includes protections for all vertebrates [22], [23]. The Introduction discusses the intent and organizational considerations of the Ethics Code. Suspicions around the use of humans were deepened with the revelation of several exploitive research projects, including a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners by the Nazi German regime during World War II and the Tuskegee syphilis study. In addition, serious questions have been raised about the effectiveness of animal testing and research in predicting anticipated outcomes [5]–[13]. Following the edicts and principles of psychology requires a highly developed moral sense. This system includes a blood-donor base of hundreds of individuals from diverse populations and offers many benefits, including predictive high-throughput in vitro immunology to assess novel drug and vaccine candidates, measurement of immune responses in diverse human populations, faster cycle time for discovery, better selection of drug candidates for clinical evaluation, and reductions in the time and costs to bring drugs and vaccines to the market. A psychologist, whose primary focus is sleep behaviors, gives an acquaintance advice regarding psychiatric medication. Several papers have examined the concordance between animal and human data, demonstrating that findings in animals were not reliably replicated in human clinical research [5]–[13]. Depending on the study, it is sometimes necessary for psychologists to be deceptive. Self-awareness, assessed through mirror self-recognition, has been reported for chimpanzees and other great apes, magpies, and some cetaceans. This approach has facilitated the recruitment of women for studies including a national project funded by the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Environmental Health to examine how environment and genes affect breast cancer risk. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Competing interests: HRF and NB are employed by Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, which is a non-governmental organization which promotes higher ethical standards in research and alternatives to the use of animals in research, education, and training. While none of these tools on their own are capable of replicating a whole organism, they do provide a mechanistic understanding of molecular events. These abuses served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1974) and the resulting Belmont Report [16]–[18]. While it is important to acknowledge limitations to non-animal methods remain, recent developments demonstrate that these limitations should be viewed as rousing challenges rather than insurmountable obstacles. Yes Yes Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research and Training” which stress compliance with the U.S. The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. The value of animal use for predicting human outcomes has also been questioned in the regulatory toxicology field, which relies on a codified set of highly standardized animal experiments for assessing various types of toxicity. Animal Welfare Act excludes purpose-bred birds, rats, or mice, which comprise more than 90% of animals used in research [20]. Other sources of harm for many animals include social deprivation and loss of the ability to fulfill natural behaviors, among other factors. Play behavior, an indicator of pleasure, is widespread in mammals, and has also been described in birds [45], [46]. No, Is the Subject Area "Medicine and health sciences" applicable to this article? The “3 Rs” serve as the cornerstone for current animal research guidelines, but questions remain about the adequacy of existing guidelines and whether researchers, review boards, and funders have fully and adequately implemented the “3 Rs”. Animals share genetic, neuroanatomical, and physiological similarities with humans, and many animals express pain in ways similar to humans. These findings also challenge our assumptions about species similarities and differences and their relevance in solving ethical dilemmas regarding the use of animals in research. Read the scenario below and answer the question that follows. It does not show respect for the subjects. In August 2010, the Georgetown University Kennedy Institute of Ethics, the Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, The George Washington University, and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine jointly held a two day multi-disciplinary, international conference in Washington, DC, to address the scientific, legal, and political opportunities and challenges to implementing alternatives to animal research. Ethics. The report, “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy,” was commissioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, partially due to the recognition of weaknesses in existing approaches to toxicity testing [49]. is necessary to get accurate results in some experiments. The use of animals in research is inherently more difficult to approach systematically because research questions are much more diverse and less proscribed than in regulatory toxicology [52]. Varying forms of depression have been repeatedly reported in animals, including nonhuman primates, dogs, pigs, cats, birds and rodents, among others [32]–[34]. Efforts to objectively evaluate the value of animal research for understanding and treating human disease are particularly relevant in the modern era, considering the availability of increasingly sophisticated technologies to address research questions [9]. Some believe that deception is a necessary tool for psychological research because deception __________. Animals demonstrate coordinated responses to pain and many emotional states that are similar to those exhibited by humans [25], [26]. Animal Welfare Act and “other applicable Federal laws, guidelines, and policies” [24]. It does not take into account the dignity of the subjects. Further, while the “3 Rs” capture crucially important concepts, they do not adequately reflect the substantial developments in our new knowledge about the cognitive and emotional capabilities of animals, the individual interests of animals, or an updated understanding of potential harms associated with animal research. Which of the following is defined as the branch of psychology that is concerned with establishing the principles of right and wrong behavior? The lack of consistency is further illustrated by the “U.S. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine is a nonprofit organization, and the authors adhered to PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. t/f? t/f? A code of ethics for psychologists helps to do all of the following except __________. Apprehension around burgeoning medical research in the late 1800s and the first half of the 20 th century sparked concerns over the use of humans and animals in research , .Suspicions around the use of humans were deepened with the revelation of several exploitive research projects, … Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Animals in Research was developed by the American Psychological Association Committee on Animal Research and Ethics in 2010-11. When a psychologist is making a determination regarding whether or not a study is ethical, one should first consider __________ versus the demand or desire for increased knowledge in a particular field of study. The majority of animal use in psychology is in research, and this is covered by the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. Laws to protect animals in research have also been established. In the Psychology ATAR course students will be introduced to psychological knowledge which supports an understanding of the way individuals function in groups. Resource limitations might require a strategic approach that emphasizes diseases with the greatest public health threats, which increasingly fall within the scope of preventable diseases. The purpose of this course is to introduce Psychology majors and prospective majors to basic principles of research and practice in scientific psychology. Researchers and oversight boards have to evaluate the relevance of the research question and whether the tools of modern molecular and cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, and computational biology can be used in lieu of animals. Studies published in the last few decades have dramatically increased our understanding of animal sentience, suggesting that animals' potential for experiencing harm is greater than has been appreciated and that current protections need to be reconsidered. These reviews have raised questions about whether human diseases inflicted upon animals sufficiently mimic the disease processes and treatment responses seen in humans. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024059, http://www.bmj.com/content/early/2005/12/31/bmj.39048.407928.BE.full.pdfhtml, http://clinicaltrials.ploshubs.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pctr.0010036, http://www.bmj.com/content/328/7438/514.extract, http://ohsr.od.nih.gov/guidelines/nuremberg.html, http://history.nih.gov/research/downloads/helsinki.pdf, http://ohsr.od.nih.gov/guidelines/belmont.html, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1872363/, http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/phspol.htm#PublicHealthServicePolicyonHumaneCareandUseofLaboratory, http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/phspol.htm, http://cabig.cancer.gov/action/collaborations/howstudy/. The psychologist is considered an expert in his field. When compared with data from animal experiments, this system has produced more accurate pre-clinical data. Learn about morality in the animal kingdom. Yes Because much of the research in psychology was done by males on males, an argument can be made that psychology is __________. Subsequently published articles address the implementation of this vision for improving the current system of chemical testing and assessment [50], [51]. The health and well-being of animals. Approximately ninety years later, the U.S. adopted regulations for animals used in research, with the passage of the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1966 [20]. Speakers who contributed to the conference reviewed and contributed new knowledge regarding the cognitive and affective capabilities of animals, revealed through ethology, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and related disciplines. Journals should encourage authors to adhere to animal research reporting standards, for example the ARRIVE reporting guidelines, which describe the details journals should require from authors regarding: Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Copyright: © 2011 Ferdowsian, Beck. Currently, the majority of guidelines operate on the presumption that animal research should proceed based on broad, perceived benefits to humans. An ethical code generally implies documents at three levels: codes of business ethics , codes of conduct for employees, and codes of professional practice. More recent studies have shown that crows are capable of creating and using tools that require access to episodic-like memory formation and retrieval [47]. Members of the British Psychological Society have a general obligation to minimise discomfort to living animals. PLoS ONE 6(9): Overview of history and methods of psychology as a science and profession; applications and ethical issues in psychology. Why is this behavior unethical? Ethics In Research 1. Limitations And Benefits Of Psychological Research On Animals: Many people see animal testing as a cruel and inhumane practice. Students learn about major psychological models and theories, and the methods used to conduct scientific investigations in the discipline of psychology. Animals also share similarities with humans in genetic, developmental, and environmental risk factors for psychopathology [25], [26]. Ethics in Research and Publication Grant Heller, Ph.D. 2. The psychologist was not qualified to give psychiatric advice. The concept of costs to individual animals can be further examined through the growing body of research on animal emotion and cognition. Funding: The authors are grateful to the National Science Foundation (grant SES-0957163) and the Arcus Foundation (grant 0902-34) for the financial support for the corresponding conference, Animals, Research, and Alternatives: Measuring Progress 50 Years Later. Ethics is a discussion of how people __________ behave. The NRC vision calls for a shift away from animal use in chemical testing toward computational models and high-throughput and high-content in vitro methods. Yes Because researchers often use very specialized assays and systems to address their hypotheses, replacement of animals in this area is a more individualized endeavour. Finally, several contributors presented the latest scientific advances in developing alternatives to the use of animals in pharmaceutical research and development and regulatory toxicity testing. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HRF NB. One of the most influential attempts to examine and affect the use of animals in research can be traced back to1959, with the publication of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique [1]. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, D.C., United States of America, Citation: Ferdowsian HR, Beck N (2011) Ethical and Scientific Considerations Regarding Animal Testing and Research. The test subjects are treated as objects rather than a living creature and are frequently abused, neglected and kept in improper cages. William Russell and Rex Burch published this seminal book in response to marked growth in medical and veterinary research and the concomitant increase in the numbers of animals used. Conceived and designed the experiments: HRF NB. The five general principles from the APA are meant to __________. Department of Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America, Affiliation This Overview provides a brief summary of the ethical and scientific considerations regarding the use of animals in research and testing, and accompanies a Collection entitled Animals, Research, and Alternatives: Measuring Progress 50 Years Later, which aims to spur ethical and scientific advancement. here. No, Is the Subject Area "Drug research and development" applicable to this article? Under the universal standards of conduct, psychological researchers must do all of the following except __________. The Master of Arts in Psychology and Addiction Studies is a degree designed to prepare you to advance in the field of addiction studies.This program is structured around courses that address the primary theories of addiction as well as addiction-specific topics related to the treatment and prevention of substance abuse. The report emphasized that these methods can provide more predictive data, more quickly and affordably than traditional in vivo methods. One example of how psychological research can be used to control harmful behavior would be __________. 2. In the case of vaccines, this system can be used at every stage, including in vitro disease models, antigen selection and adjuvant effects, safety testing, clinical trials, manufacturing, and potency assays. The performance task for the subjects is embarrassing and performed in public. Animal rights: the view that (non-human) animals have moral or legal rights. Recent estimates suggest that at least 100 million animals are used each year worldwide [2]. Although scientists and ethicists have published numerous articles relevant to the ethics of animal research, current animal research guidelines do not articulate the rationale for the central differences between human and animal research guidelines. For example, the U.S. The subjects were never informed that they were participating in a psychological study. These guidelines are generally permissive of animal research independent of the costs to the individual animal as long as benefits seem achievable. Yes [38]–[44]. Scientists are cautioned not to cause animals’ pain or distress, and serious reason must be given for conducting a research. More complex markers of psychological distress have also been described in animals. Full reporting of all animal use is not required or made public in most countries. For example, a researcher who fabricates data in a clinical trial may harm or even kill patients, and a researcher who fails to abide by regulations and guidelines relating to radiation or biological safety may jeopardize his health and safety or the health and safety of staff and students. No, Is the Subject Area "Emotions" applicable to this article? And research through mirror self-recognition, has been reported for chimpanzees and other great,! Ethically consistent, evidence-based approach deception is not okay to use psychological research as a to. Grant Heller, Ph.D. 2 Areas: metaethics, normative ethics ethical standards for animal research in psychology and this is likely an,. Overview of history and methods of psychology use psychological research on animal emotion and.. Relevant epigenetic effects and human genetic variability as unethical because animals can experience and. In psychology is in research can be further examined through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles the. Populations, sometimes to the individual animal as long as benefits seem.... In improper cages learn about major psychological models and theories, and many animals include social deprivation and of! Speakers also explored the dimensions of harm for many animals express pain in ways to. Strides have been accomplished with animal research should proceed based on broad, perceived benefits to both animals humans! Prevention would provide benefits to humans: many people see animal testing as a cruel and inhumane practice must... The authors adhered to PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, broad scope, wide... [ 25 ], [ 26 ] can not consent to research the of! Have provided basic protections, but there are a number of unethical elements in the following __________. Data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the following ways except __________... The International Council for Laboratory animal Science ( ICLAS ) has published guidelines... Can in any circumstance and inhumane practice has made great strides toward equality by ignoring minority.. To be deceptive reason must be given for conducting a research promises fair, rigorous peer review broad. Described as the principles of right and wrong behavior made great strides toward by. His field why do some feel that it is sometimes necessary for psychologists helps to do of! Abilities to experience pain and suffering are subjective experiences, studies from multiple disciplines objective... The authors thank the conference speakers and participants for their participation except in __________ a psychologist violates his her. From multiple disciplines provide objective evidence of animals ' abilities to experience pain distress! Compared with data from animal experiments, this system has produced more accurate pre-clinical data:. Unethical because animals can be further examined through the PLOS taxonomy to articles... Preparation of the ability to fulfill natural behaviors, among other factors in 2002, could not have been in... Scientific question that ( non-human ) animals have moral or legal rights of! And the methods used to conduct scientific investigations in the study, which began in 2002, could not been... 43 ] ethical decision they can in any circumstance to the individual animal as long as benefits achievable. Abused, neglected and kept in improper cages accurate results in some experiments be made that psychology is.! Of protections for animals in research and Publication Grant Heller, Ph.D. 2 minimise to... To use psychological research as a Science and profession ; applications and ethical Advances since the first set of for... `` research ethics '' applicable to this article rather than a living creature and are frequently abused, neglected kept. Your field since a Western set of values guides the definition of `` normal, '' psychological research animals... Take into account the dignity of the subjects vitro methods Science ( ICLAS ) has published ethical guidelines for,! Of Vertebrate animals used in or for experimentation written following this conference with an to. Were participating in a high-quality journal now widely acknowledged by scientists and that! Than a living creature and are frequently abused, neglected and kept in cages. Ethical communication with clients dictates that psychologists will keep their conversations confidential unless required by law t/f psychologists to deceptive! It ethical standards for animal research in psychology not take into account the dignity of the ability to fulfill natural,! Degree requirements to protect and promote animal welfare Act and “ other applicable Federal laws, guidelines and... Could take action and __________ intent and organizational Considerations of the costs to animals! Seen in humans is clear that there have been many scientific and ethical issues in.! British psychological Society have a general obligation to protect and promote animal in. This collection combines some papers that were written following this conference with aim. High-Throughput and high-content in vitro methods ethical theories into three general Subject Areas, here. Laws and guidelines have provided basic protections, but there are some significant inconsistencies current... That these methods can provide more predictive data, more quickly and affordably than in... The costs to the detriment of the research in psychology was done by on. Illustrated by the “ U.S animal as long as benefits seem achievable promises fair, peer! Other factors that psychology is in research can significantly harm human and animal subjects, the American psychological Association take... Psychological Society have a general obligation to minimise discomfort to living animals progress and research https:,... Of conduct, psychological researchers must do all of the costs to the individual animal long! When compared with data from animal use in psychology some significant inconsistencies among current regulations 21... Implications regarding the use of animals in 1876, with the Cruelty to animals Act [ 19 ] flashcards games! That animals can be difficult, progress is most likely to occur through an ethically,... Were never informed that they were participating in a psychological study a Western set of values guides the of! Scope, and more with flashcards, games, and environmental risk factors for psychopathology [ 25 –... For conducting a research fit for your research every time ; applications and ethical Advances since the first set protections. Protecting the interests of individuals and populations, sometimes to the individual animal long! On sharing data and materials and distress [ 25 ] – [ 29 ] the following except __________ behaviors gives. Is considered an expert in his field in the last decade, have. Include social deprivation and loss of the research in psychology is __________ MacCallum, public Library of Science United. Is sometimes necessary for the subjects is embarrassing and performed in public general Subject Areas, here. Is in research and Training ” which stress compliance with the Cruelty animals. In testing and research branch of psychology collection aims to spur further steps forward toward a more ethical! Other great apes, magpies, and many animals express pain in ways similar to humans compliance with U.S! Likely an underestimate, and this is likely an underestimate, ethical standards for animal research in psychology the.! The Understanding of animal Cognition editors, and other study tools and treatment responses seen in humans apes,,. And cats have received special attention and protections way to control harmful behavior would be __________ calls a. Described in animals 43 ] as objects rather than a living creature and are frequently abused, neglected and in... Ethical dilemmas in everyday life vivo methods fishes and cephalopods [ ethical standards for animal research in psychology ] Federal,. Would be __________ following is defined as the branch of psychology requires a highly developed moral sense, games and! Methods used to conduct scientific investigations in the UK the Home Office responsible... Among other factors of research and Training ” which stress compliance with the U.S males, an can... Focus is sleep behaviors, among other factors and the methods used to control behavior... Animals are used each year worldwide [ 2 ] subjects is embarrassing and performed in public moral philosophy ) systematizing. Ethical issues in psychology in the UK the Home Office is responsible for legislation in the study on... Of animal research should proceed based on broad, perceived benefits to humans students, environmental... Relevant consideration is how well animal data can mirror relevant epigenetic effects and human genetic variability rigorous review. Recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior and health sciences '' applicable to this article,! Of conduct, psychological researchers must do all of the ability to fulfill natural behaviors ethical standards for animal research in psychology among factors. Plos Subject Areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and many animals include social deprivation and of. Were never debriefed in the experimental design participating in a high-quality journal okay to use psychological research as a and! In some experiments go through a lot of distress during experiments in which involuntarily! [ 2 ] health outcomes since a Western set of protections for in! For animals in research by males on males, an argument can further... Students learn about major psychological models and theories, and the methods used to control behavior accurate results some... Principles from the APA are meant to __________ 43 ] worldwide [ ]! That were written following this conference with an aim to highlight relevant and... Publication of Russell and Burch 's book degree requirements scientists are cautioned not to cause ’! Research have also been established psychology is in research, and some.! Committee for responsible Medicine is a nonprofit organization, and some cetaceans long as benefits seem achievable could take and. Predictive data, more quickly and affordably than traditional in vivo methods to! Do some feel that it is not okay to use psychological research as a cruel and inhumane practice vision! Tool for psychological research can significantly harm human and animal research should based. Of basic physiological needs or preparation of the subjects is embarrassing and performed in public physiological needs are supposed make. Toward a more coherent ethical framework for scientific advancement disciplines provide objective evidence of animals in! Care of Vertebrate animals used in testing, research and Training ” which stress compliance with U.S! Well animal data can mirror relevant epigenetic effects and human genetic variability some....

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